Hot Spot for Crime
Hot spots for crime are the areas on a certain map where the crime has a high rating. The researchers and theorists examine the occurrence of hotspots in certain areas, while the analysts examine the techniques used to perform the research (Braga & United States, 2008). Maps have been developed to help people understand and have the knowledge of areas where crime occurs. There are many theories of crime that explain why does the crime occur in certain places, and why crime does not in others (Braga & United States, 2008). The East 57th Street is a crime hot spot in New York City. Theft and robbery are the major types of crimes committed along this street. The offenders snatch property from their owners by the use of intimidation or force. Items such as phones, wrist watches, handbags and wallets are snatched away from people.
Quite a number of burglary cases are also reported along this street. Offenders often break into buildings and commit crimes such as theft and robbery. About five theft and robbery cases are reported daily along the East 57th Street.
First, we have the place theories. The theories explain the reason as to why do the crimes occurring in certain areas and not in others. Second is the neighborhood theory. The theory observes crime at larger areas with the use of statistical information to determine the hot spots. The third theory is the crime pattern theory. This is the commonly used theory that views crime as not casual. This theory allows making generalized statements about the area hotspots, and hotspot areas can be predicted using crime pattern theory (Braga &Weisberg, 2010).
The two methods of creating crime hot spots are theNearest Neighbor and Spatial, and Temporary Analysis of Crime (STAC). Samuel Bates created STAC in the early 1990, while Clark and Evans create the foundation of the Nearest Neighbor. Clark and Evans’ method was previously used to study the population of plants and animals, and was later adapted in the criminology.
The interactions of potential offenders with potential targets in settings that make accomplishing the crime easily, safely and profitably, create crimes(Braga &Weisberg,2010). People fear that crime settings and situations which make them vulnerable to ill-treatment. There are five categories: fear of being alone, fear of unknown areas, fear of another person, fear of the dark, and the fear to have an encounter adangerouspearson. The lack of control over a certain situation or vulnerability to the circumstances enhances fear to the people involved. Human constructions or the buildings create crime settings. Crimes may often be high in the situations where people feel safe and express little fear such as busy streets known as the environmental psychology of crime (Braga &Weisberg,2010).
The Routine Activities Theory
This is one of the major theories of environmental criminology. It states that a crime occurs in the presence of a provoked offender, absence of people to intervene, and lastly an accessible target. The absence of an abled guardian provokes the offenderto commits the offence when he thinks that the target is suitable for striking. Crimes only take place after the offender’s assessment. Capable guardians are people whose presence would deter the potential offenders from perpetrating criminal activities. The CCTV is used as a capable guardianif monitoring is accomplished at the other end. Examples of capable guardians are neighbors, door staff, friends, security guards, police patrols, and co-workers. Guardians can be formal, like security guards, or informal like the neighbors. For efficiency, capable guardians such as the CCTVs should be monitored or placed at the right places. An accessible target can be an object, place or a person. The routine activity theory prevents the crime through altering the offender, presence of capable guardians, or the target.
The theory predicts that the normal daily rhythms create concentration of targets. Movement of people is very important in hot spot generation. The modes of transportation, the rhythms of movement, the volumes of movement, and the ease of flow along different transportation paths are all the factors that create the concentration of offenders and targets at predictable times and places (Braga & United States, 2008). Road network connectivity affects the distribution of thefts in metropolitan Vancouver.
These are particular areas where large numbers of people are attracted to commit crimes for reasons not related to the crime. These areas include sports stadiums, entertainment districts, shopping precincts, and office concentrations. Crime generators produce crime by creating particular times and places that provide appropriate concentrations of people and other targets in settings that are conducive to particular types of criminal acts (Braga & United States, 2008). Both outsiders and local insiders can carry out the criminal act.
Crime attractors are particular areas that create criminal opportunities and attract criminal offenders because of their known opportunities to certain crimes. Examples of such areas are prostitution areas, bar districts, large shopping malls or insecure parking lots. Outsiders who earlier visited the area and identified an opportunity or target often commit crimes in such areas.The attraction to crime is caused by an ecological label often supplemented by the intending offender’s personal history, establishing that location as a known place to go for that kind of crime (Braga and Weisberg, 2010).
Offender Search Theories
Offender search theories explain how people end up committing crimes and the driving forces towards committing crimes. Even if we were to understand more about the development of criminality than we presently do, it is not clear whether all or even most offenders are deterred from involvement in crime (Braga and Weisberg, 2010). The theory draws people together to an area and some of whom become offenders. The theory has not come up with a solution of solving crimes.
The theory focuses on how people commit crimes. It also explains that the offenders just like everyone have routine activities. Offenders travel to set targets to accomplish their mission in the course of their activities. Offenders form maps of their potential target. The theory explains how the offenders through identification of a potential target and the absence of potential guardians make hot spots. Favorable factors encourage criminal activities in certain areas and specific times. Crime occurs in small areas or hot spots that were earlier been assessed by the offenders and they have established a potential target.
All people are good by default,nevertheless some social factors lead them into committing crimes. There are different reasons as to why people commit crimes. There are people who commit crimes out of fear, while others just feel good after carrying out a dangerous activity. Poor parental skills are the cause of crime. Children brought up in areas with a lot of criminal activities or hot spots and were not closely monitored by their parents are likely to end up being criminals. Drugs and alcohol impair judgment and give people the courage to commit crimes. Hot spots are mostly the built environment for example unsecured parking lots. This area may tempt an offender to commit crimes due to the favorable conditions around them.
Hot spots are areas on a map with the largest concentration of criminal activities. Crime occur in the presence of a provoked offender, absence of people to intervene,and lastly if there is an accessible target. The offenders assess an area before making it a target for the purposes of convenience. Close monitoring of areas or hot spot would help reduce the number of crimes happening at a given time. The routine activity theory and the offender search theory explain why and how crimes occur at specific areas, and the driving forces towards committing those crimes respectively. Installing good morals in children will help reduce their urge of committing crimes in their adulthood.
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