The revolution in the relations of wage labor began in the 1930s of the previous century after the initiative of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt while distributing New Deal. The most important elements of this course pertained to the reform of labor relations in capitalistic conditions. Since then terms of employment have been negotiated between employers and the labor organization representing employees in the bargaining unit.
After a while Roosevelt signed the law which is known as the Wagner act of 1935. This law caused an imbalance in political forces, limiting freedom of action, and "unfair labor practice" only of employers that could not make a protest against it.
Unfair labor practices refer to certain violations of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) and other legislations.
The Wagner Act defined in Section 8 five unfair labor practices that consisted in:
- interfering with two or more employees acting in concert to protect rights provided for in the Act, whether or not a union exists
- dominating or interfering with the formation or administration of a labor organization
- discrimination against employees for engaging in concerted or union activities or refraining from them
- discrimination against an employee for filing charges with the NLRB or taking part in any NLRB proceedings
- refusal to bargain with the union that is the lawful representative of its employees
Consequently, bargaining subjects became divided into three categories: mandatory, voluntary or permissive, and illegal.
Mandatory bargaining subjects are those that distinctly refer to the NLRA stipulation. These subjects include wages, hours, merit increases, promotions, pensions, health profit-sharing, bonuses, discharges, welfare plans, grievance procedures, disciplinary procedures, seniority, health and safety, drug testing, transfers, %u2012 work assignments and plant closings). Generally, conditions of employment refer only to issues that "set an aspect of the relationship between the management and labor union". It is undoubtedly an unfair labor practice if one of the sides wishes to bargain over a mandatory subject but the other refuses.
Mandatory subjects are none-the-less important even today when there are numerous opponents of collective bargaimin. The Wagner Law allows workers to be safe and cared. It supplies them with individual freedom and guarantees protection of their labor rights. People continue join to labor unions that fight for their safety during collective bargains.
|Communicating Through Posture||The Night Stalker Richard Ramirez|
- The Night Stalker Richard Ramirez
- Intermediate Periods of Egypt
- Communicating Through Posture
- A New Earth