Public Policy Makers

It may possibly be described as a scheme of laws, and courses of action regarding a particular topic which has been publicized by a government unit of a certain country or even the representatives of the government. This scheme also incorporates financial-backing/funding precedence/priorities, and regulatory measures. Public policy may possibly be shared by persons or even a faction of people through several means. These include mobilization of interest factions/groups, and via education. Another one is advocacy. It has been well documented by various researchers that the mode of molding public in democracies based in Continents North America, and Europe are quite different from those in other Continents such as Africa and Asia. It should be noted that a key facet of public policy is law. It (the law) is made up of two main components. The preliminary one is the specific legislation. The second one is the provisions of constitutional or intercontinental law. In most cases, public policy discussions take place owing to projected legislation and also over financial support.

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The term advocacy on the other hand may possibly be described as” trying to sway/influence public policy through a three main ways”. These include political pressure and education. Another one is lobbying. Normally, advocacy factions across the globe are charged with three main responsibilities. The preliminary one is to enlighten both the general public and also the public policy makers regarding nature of certain problems affecting the society. Secondly, they educate them regarding the type of legislation which is required so as to tackle the problems. Thirdly, they enlighten both the public, and public policy makers concerning the amount of money needed so as to offer scores of services or even perform research pertaining to certain topics or issues. It should be noted that several scholars and research institutions across the globe usually perceive advocacy as inappropriate. Therefore, it is crystal clear that the majority of public policy priorities are mainly swayed by advocacy. It is known that research information which is regarded to be sound may possibly be utilized to enlighten public policy makers. It can also be used in enlightening the public. This has an impact of making better the public policy process (Kilpatrick, 2000).

Theories of crime
The initial theory is the differential association. This theory provides precedence/priority to the supremacy/power of the societal sways/influences. Additionally, it provides learning experiences. It may possibly be expressed in a number of sequences. One, most persons who engage in criminal activities learn this conduct through interface with other individuals. Two, an individual learns how to commit a crime activity though personal factions. Three, this theory can differ in a number of ways. These include intensity, and duration. Another one is priority. Four, according to this theory, the learning procedure engrosses/involves the identical means that is whether an individual is learning criminality of compliance or not.

The second theory is the rational choice. This theory defines crime/offense as an incident that takes place whenever a criminal chooses to risk breaking the law in a particular society subsequent to taking into considerations the benefits to be attained. These benefits include money, and the manner in which a particular target is shielded. Another one is how prosperous the vicinity/neighborhood is (Cornish and Clarke, 1986).

The third theory is the psychological trait. This theory centers mainly on the psychological/mental facets of why some individuals engage in criminal activities. It links these facets/aspects to criminal conduct and, learning. It also associates them (the aspects) with intelligence.

This theory is further sub-divided into two. These include psychodynamic and cognitive theories. Furthermore, 2 traits that loan/lend to the beliefs as much as this theory is concerned exist. The initial one is the personality trait. The second one is the intelligence. As far as psychodynamic theory is concerned, it stands for the social differential theory facet. It proposes that our brains conduct 3 key functions. These include incognizant, and cognizant. The third one is the precognizant. The incognizant brain manipulates daily thoughts. The precognizant brain on the other hand manipulates the fundamentals of experience which are beyond alertness. This theory also proposes that “civilization isn’t intrinsic.” Nonetheless, it is learned, and so is the criminology discipline. As much as cognitive theory is concerned, it centers on the manner in which people make out the globe around them. Further, it focuses on how individuals emotionally make out the globe around them (Deary, 2003).

As far as personality trait is concerned, it has been documented by researchers in criminal justice that there are a number of personality traits which contribute to life of crime. These comprise mental instability, self-assertiveness, aggression, and egotism. Others are poor individual skills, resentment, suspicion, ambivalence, and defiance. Moreover, lack of concern for others, and feeling unacknowledged contribute to life of crime (Deary, 2003).

How public policy makers have been influenced by the scholarly work done by theorists and researchers in criminology and criminal justice

Public policymakers have been influenced by the scholarly work done by the theorists and researchers in criminology and criminal justice in a number of ways. One, the theories of crimes which were crafted by various theorists continues to offer the logical foundation which is required by public policy makers in order to craft informed crime-prevention tactics.  Two, the scholarly work done by the researchers in criminal justice, and the theorists permits public policy makers to create models. These models permit a better comprehension of criminal conduct. This has an impact of making better the expansion of tactics which have been designed with the sole-purpose of tackling crime in a particular society.

 Three, the crime theories are characterized by one intricate policy repercussion. This include the fact that they make it hard for public policy makers to come up with the most appropriate methods which ought to be employed so as to carry out rehabilitation for those found guilty of engaging in various criminal activities. Four, over the last couple of decades that have elapsed, most researchers in criminal justice, and criminology have argued that the immense imprisonment isn’t a wise reaction to an offense. At the same time, public policy makers have continued to escalate prison demographics to a number of times.

Five, presently, the rational choice theory is utilized by policy makers as a foundation of the law. The fundamental utilitarian notions have been amalgamated with the idea that most individuals across the globe are basically self-centered. Due to this reason, the laws ought to be crafted at the same time so as to sustain a utilitarian equilibrium/balance. To public policy makers, this theory is extremely important as much as taking of appropriate actions regarding crime are concerned.

In the modern-day United States, the accord of the public is for cruel retribution for various crimes. Furthermore, polices that are being executed presently by policy makers across United States are normally founded on one key notion. This notion states that “criminals or those persons suspected to be engaging in criminal activities may possibly be discouraged from continuing with their heinous activities subsequent to offering of a suitable and reliable upshot/consequence.” The common upshot is punishment, for instance, life imprisonment. 

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