1) Ivan Pavlov published his research on Classical Conditioning in 1906. He developed The Classical Conditioning Theory, it was based on his observations. Pavlov believed that the salivation of the dogs was a response to all his studies. The dogs had a salivary response to the food, which he supposed to an unconditioned reflex. He states that salivating to the presentation of food is a conditioned reflex. He discovered, ”the previously neutral stimulus (the metronome) had become what is known as a conditioned stimulus that then provoked a conditioned response (salivation)”.
2) In 1932 was published a book The Language and Thought of the Child by Jean Piaget in Russian, and remains relevant to this day, identifying the sources of a basic scientific knowledge of the child psychology. It was created in the result of years’ research of the child mental functions, as thinking and speaking, and clearly characterizes the transition from a realistic perception to the real, in stages, through egocentric speech and egocentric thinking to the socialized language and the logical adolescent thinking (Hock 2002).
3) Erik Erikson published a book Childhood and Society in 1950. It covers the social significance of childhood. Erikson was interested in adolescence (e.g., in Identity, Youth, and Crisis). The book is devoted to the adolescent "identity crisis." Erickson attached great importance to the need of studying the identity problem. As he wrote in his Childhood and Society, "the study of identity in our time is a strategic goal, which in Freud's time was the study of sexuality”.
4) In1967 were published two books of Aaron Beck: The diagnosis and management of depression and Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. He created the essence of the direction that all of the problems are created by negative thinking. It all begins with the interpretation of the person of external events, the scheme: external events (stimuli) → interpretation of the cognitive system (thoughts) → feelings or behavior.
5) Prozac was made available in America in 1995. It was approved to be prescribed obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression by the Food and Drug Administration, then this drug was prescribed for psychiatrists and physicians for posttraumatic stress, anxiety, eating and panic disorders.
6) In 2000 was produced a working draft of the human genome sequence. The assembly contained fragments that have cover 90 percent of the genome. The consortium's ultimate aim was to produce a "finished" sequence.
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