Fall of the Roman Empire
The Roman Empire ruled Rome for long. The empire nevertheless realized a fall and this was during the post republican time when the Ancient Roman realized civilization. The empire was characterized by the autocratic governing system as well as the largest in Europe and Mediterranean territorial holdings (Kelly, 2006). The Roman Empire incorporates the ruling in Roman states both during and after the leader emperor Augustus.
The Roman republic was weakened, and subverted by the Civil wars for many years a factor that made it to be changed into an Empire. Various events are linked to the signatories of its transition from being a republic to an empire. These events are inclusive of the appointment of Julius Caesar as an uninterrupted despot that happened in 44 BC and the Actium mêlée of 31 BC. The other event that witnessed the transition was the Roman senate grant of the horrendous Augustus to the Octavian’s, an incident that took place in 27 BC. After being declared a republic, Rome started growth that was significant but is realized its Zenith under the ruling of Emperor Trajan.
The Roman Empire covered around 6.5 million km square of the land surface. Due to this vastness and the long endurance, the Rome institution and culture had great influence on the language development as well as the growth of religion and architecture. This too enabled the development of philosophical disciplines and law as well as the various forms of government in the areas that the territory governed.
At the close of the 3rd century AD, the division of authorities was established between the four co-emperors by Diocletian. This was undertaken for securing a significant position in the vast territory and coming to an end with the third century crisis. Afterwards the empire was divided in between the east and west line and this went on until the death of Theodosius 1 after which the empire was divided for the final instance.
Western Roman Empire collapsed at round 476 when Romulus Augustus was compelled to relinquish by Odoacer. The Byzantine Empire on the other hand came to a halt in 1553 many years after the collapse of the western empire due to the death of Constantine xi in addition to the incarcerate of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks who were under the leadership of Mehmed ii.
The emperor power was existing by the high merit of the tribunician influences and the proconsular authority. The tribunician powers made the emperor and his office untouchable and these influences did accord to the emperor more authority as opposed to the limited kind given to the civil Rome government (Lewis, 2003). The power to the emperor was even superior to an extent that he could preside over and controls legislature. The pronconsular authority on the other hand gave the emperor the power over the Roman armed forces. The emperor too did enjoy the privilege of the reserve power that was set for the senators as well as the assemblies. Such reserve powers included the right to affirm war and the right to ratify treaties as well as being able to sit together with foreign leaders and engage in negotiations. The emperor too had the power to control the membership of the senate.
The senate acquired power from the Roman assemblies after the founding of the empire. Theoretically, the senate and the emperor were equals but senate authority was negligible, senate was just like an avenue that the emperor was disguising his autocratic powers on under the republicanism doctrines. Senate was just a rubber stamp that had been stripped of powers and its existence was tied on the emperor’s mercy. Some emperors showed respect to it while others ridiculed it existence.
Senators and Equestrians
All emperors were required to have the senatorial orders as well as the equestrian one for them to be able to rule failure to which they could not be allowed to govern. From the senators and equestrians the regional council and legion leaders were chosen.
The expansion of the Roman Empire did facilitate the support of the various cultures and tolerating of worshiping of the various deities. The empire was tolerant of the various religions and cult considering that they did not accrue to troubles. Other faiths did accept this as well and they organized ceremonies and roman liturgy to fit the local cultural conventions and identity. Their existed an imperial cult in the empire that the inhabitants were called to participate in as a sign of loyalty and to worship emperors as demigods.
The Roman Empire fell for a number of reasons. Initially it is argued that the rise of Christianity led to the fall. This is because it is linked to the erosions of the Roman beliefs and values. Such erosion resulted to the various conflicts that were noticed later on in the empire between the Christians and the believers of the olden day pagan philosophies. These conflicts accrued to Christians prosecutions until Constantine: the first Christian Rome emperor brought it into halt.
The political problems included the fact that the senators turned into extreme corrupt dealings, which resulted to political volatility. The consuls practiced this as well as the other empire officials who were ready to only offer position to the people who were able to offer a lump sum pay of Denarii: the roman currency. Acceptance of bribes in exchange of favors was too practiced largely in Rome (Gibbon & Womersley, 2001). This resulted to the election of incompetent emperors due to money they could offer and resulted to the Plebian’s suffering as well as the common insurgency that was led by the rebellions inhabitants.
The division of the empire into two halves by Emperor Constantine resulted to the Western Empire loss of authority over towns in the Eastern Empire where the capital city Constantinople was located. This resulted to a great reduction in the Western Empire treasury benefits and it weakened them dramatically hence making their strength to vanish resulting to collapse.
The military shortcoming did as well result to the fall of the empire. The army was comprised of the barbarian skilled defense force by 300 AD. These were much less effective when compared to the prior soldiers a factor that made fights against attacks difficult and they lost the grip they had on militia actions. The empire stayed long without registering the recruits in the militia. Inhabitants required to join the forces dropped the offer and they instead registered their servants on their positions resulting to very lethargic forces. The army lacked the morale, failed to confront enemies with courage and cared less about the Roman Empire development because from the word go they were their servants. This made Rome unable to defend it and Emperor Trajan even opted at building a perimeter wall after realizing Rome was not able to grow and confront any attacks effectively.
Economic constraints as well resulted to the fall of the Roman Empire (Heather, 2007). Rome was dependant of its empire for funding which came from farming and mining practices and this made it poor and could not tolerate the economic needs effectively. The empire-lacked trade could not reconstruct itself hence, it collapsed.
Certain emperors sullied the currency making it to lack the evasion value hence only represented by the silver it was worth. During the emperor Claudius regime the currency was not even worth 1% of silver and this resulted to relentless inflation that saw the empire vanish. The distresses caused by the high levels of taxation were not solved amicably and resulted to anxiousness amongst the populace classes of the Ancient Rome a factor that as well contributed to the fall of the empire.
Diseases had big impacts as well to the fall of the Roman Empire. Such diseases as malaria and other related plagues were a regular happening and resulted to the death of at least 20% of the Roman population. Thus, this led to reduction in the numbers when it came to the society aspects running such as welfare training, which was a disadvantage to the empire hence playing a significant role in its collapse.
The Roman Empire collapsed because this strain was more than reasonable for the empire to handle. This was due to the many years struggle with the severe problems that were facing it in the tough economic times and the limiting efforts of its armed forces. Militia became lazy as they fought against evils in the society such as corruption and the trade of favors in exchange for money.
Looking at the historical aspects of the Roman Empire ruling am able to conclude that it fell due to poor leadership and the individual seeking of the benefits by the emperors at the expense of the society as a synergy. Some emperors ruled the inhabitants of the empire with much significant skill-set, which resulted to having the empire that was able to run its affairs and took power over the Roman civil government and councils as well as the senate. These emperors ensured that the cultural beliefs were never violated and they facilitated the utilization of their conventions to realize the mutual benefit of the society. These emperors ruled and never tolerated compromises that resulted to a strongly based and firm as well as a practical empire. From the construction of the Roman Empire by such emperors, the other emperors never did uphold the legacy that was left and their compromise resulted to the collapse of the Roman Empire.
Some instead ridiculed the senate and the other sections of the civil government and continued to limit its power and ability to contribute to better leadership. These leaders allowed the judging of Christians in day light a factor that resulted to conflicts on religious grounds. These conflicts resulted to religious enemity that according to the facts on the reasons behind the collapse of the Roman Empire contributed significantly to the issue.
Acceptance of various religions and cult practices created variations on the attitude as opposed to the olden stipulated roman beliefs, which for a longer duration were shared, and united the inhabitants. The loyal honor of the imperial statues as well as the emperors by the inhabitants did vary religious believes and this fueled conflicts due to various perceptions on the practice according o the religion doctrines. If the traditional roman teachings could have been embraced the conflicts could not have resulted in the Roman Empire which latter contributed to its collapse.
The coming in of Emperor Constantine saw him stop the abduction of the Christians simply because he himself was a Christian. This was the initial Christian emperor in Rome that I translate the prior emperor cared less of how the Christians were mistreated because they defended their own beliefs. Constantine thus took the action as a defense against his Christian religion, which for long was suffering. The emperors took actions for selfish benefits, which spurred differences and further conflict between the inhabitants. Selfish interest spurred decision making which accrued to conflicts and the fall of the empire.
The birth of the corrupt senate members and counsels spoilt the ruling that was practiced in the Roman Empire most. It out of the trading of favors for Denarii the Roman currency that incompetent and corrupt emperors came into power. The leaders did not need to receive formal approval fro them to get into the high and powerful office, all they were supposed to do was offer money lump sum and they were good to go. Corrupt dealings stole the empire resources and utilized them inefficiently at the expense of realistic option such as fighting against the pandemics such as malaria which fro over 150 years was a challenge to the empire. The pandemics were instead ignored and this resulted to the succumbing of a good number of the Roman Empire inhabitants a factor that denied and limited the representation of the empire on educational forums and training on the social welfare.
Corrupt members of the council and senators did devour the empires ability to develop it and resulted to its collapse because it could not have sustained itself in any way. Corruption enabled the recruitment of servants into the army, which ended up spoiling the olden strong base and ability of the empire to confront its attackers and win. From this point of view, it is reasonable to summarize that these factors were able to facilitate the need of building up the effort needed to see the empire succumb. The collapse of the empire all started with the ridiculing of the ceremonial senators on basis of republicanism, to the religious conflicts, and worship of various cults and the emperor as god with the basis that it was a way of showing respect. This spans to the presence of corrupt leaders who traded favors for money and misused resources at the expense of other practical options. The collapse of the empire was as per opinions facilitated by poor governance by related emperors.
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