Conflict in Syria
In recent years, the riots have swept through many Arab countries. All mass media focus on cradle of civilizations Syria, the country with the oldest and the rich history and originates from the Elban civilization. The situation that is going on today in Syria, in all likelihood, is the most confusing and complicated conflict of the modern time. A murder, violence, explosions, shots, fits of anger don't come to an end. People perish, the number of victims every day inevitably grows, hundreds are wounded, the peace population suffers, there is a civil war, and the country undergoes economic losses. It is not known when disorders will stop.
Syrians want to set peace and stability. The problem is not that the government of Syria is at war against their inhabitants and democracy. The main problem is religious and cultural diversity in the territory of the county, which does not allow people to unite from the enemy. Syria is the motherland for the mane ethnic groups. Firstly, these are Sunni Arabs, Kurdish-speaking Sunnis, Muslim Gypsies, Jews and Yeminis. Secondly, these are Arabic-speaking Greek Orthodox Christians, Aramaic-speaking Christians, and Maronite Christians. The Syrian government represents Arabic-speaking Alawites, small Shiite community, whereas the majority of the population of Syria belongs to Sunni sense of Islam. Therefore, most Sunni Arabs may view this conflict as a way to dominate over others. Kurds hope to get autonomy, but Christians and other minorities have a fear to lose their place in future of the Syria. Some politics are going to use the diversity for their own gain. They want to paint the conflict as a discord between the majority of Sunnis and minority of Alawites, a part of Shiite Islam.
When the prophet Muhammad died, the disagreement between the Shiites and Sunnis originated for centuries. Though Muslims, especially in the ninth and tenth centuries understood their need for a sound dogma to protect unity, harmony and, of course, vitality of a Muslim society. Thus, it was established Sunni Islam as a common dogma. The Sunni national awareness was a reaction to ethnic and political crisis in Muslim society. It happened in the ninth century, when Sunnis and Shiites had common and different features. Sunnis accepted the existence of the Sunna as the Prophet and Shiites gave a special place to Ali, however, distanced themselves from another Prophets companions. The differences between Sunnis and Shiites occurred at the beginning of the tenth century. In that time the subject concerning mutual tolerance in a society was brought up, which preferred negotiation and peace instead of war. Sunni Islam established the theological foundation and was popular by Sunna next prophet and, then by four guided caliphs for some reasons. First of them took a title from the word sunna, which means the standard practice or normal custom in Islam. In pre-Islamic times, sunna meant the normative practices for the special tribe. The terms entered in the Quran were sunnat Allah and sunnat al-awwalin to show that was punished in the past generations. Sunna was a law practice of Quranic rules. The legal rights and schools were established with the conceptual framework contributed to the victory of Sunni Islam. The interest to the Quranic interpretation and studying text helped in the strengthening traditions and consolidation of Sunni Islam. Sunni scholars studied the mystical current as Sufism, which gave them a lot of support for realization.
On the other side, Shiism after A.D. 850 was presented as a divided community with three parts: Ismailis, Twelvers and Zaidis. (Isgandarova). Some Shiite sects wanted to carry away the whole Muslim community to their religious ideas, but a lot of people dropped any idea to avoid the state persecution. For example, the Ismailis acted as an underground movement, they were revolutionary extremists that gradually became a high intellectual group with many arguments. The Twelvers became political moderates.
Nevertheless, the differences between special legal and other schools, Sunni Islam produced a social wide unity, came to stability of the deep loyalty to the broader Muslim community, and created the stable intellectual structure. The Shiites were pleased to be a kind of constant opposition. Even so, Muslims learned a very good lesson from the past. The Muslim scholars set the consensus for the aim of establishing an agreement among Muslims. It was very important for building a bridge among once hostile Hanafi, Hanbali, Ashari and Shia dogmas. Thus, most orthodox Muslim theologians kept out of blaming another person, who prayed in Mecca or who admitted Muhammad as the Prophet. Finally, they understood that the difference of phrasing did not mean the person was disbeliever. The acute problem in Syria and all over the Muslim world points out that modern Muslims forgot the past times and it is very necessary to unite and to discuss the issue in a meaningful and peaceful manner.
At present, the social networks acquire the increasing and great popularity. Instability in Syria began with the appeals in social network Facebook, where from hundreds of people went outside. Thus, the first wave of demonstrations swept on the streets of Damascus and then, it happened in other cities of Syria. In early 2012 officials said that the disorder destroying Syria gave the advantage for Al Qaeda and other cruel Islamic extremists, who broke into the country to realize plan attacks. When pro-democracy protests captured Syria, the government did another way unlike some other countries as the Tunisia and Egypt, took a very tough punitive actions against demonstrators.
Now Syria is covered by in the armed conflict between the two sides. One of them is President Bashar al Asad; on the other hand the risen forces are that are opposed to the authorities. The regime provides alternative mechanisms to control: internal security machinery, bureaucracy and baas party. When unrest started some experts believed that Asad regime would dethrone rapidly, but underestimated its power. In the early 1980s, the authorities strongly suppressed the revolt by killing thousands of majority Muslims of Sunni sense. Socioeconomic differences take place among farmers, workers, middle-class, public sector employees, political, commercial elite and military officials. Economic class dynamics are influencing the choices of Syrian population. The most rural Syrians supported the demonstrators of opposition, while the urban population is more loyal to the traditional power. In Syria housing construction in the towns are branched, which are available for majority of people. The government provides normal medical care, regular social privileges and payments. The state carries out the leveling principle meeting understanding at the population. Though there are unforeseen incidents, which neutralized efforts of the power, such as about the million of the flow refugees from Iraq, who can easily buy housing. That way the refugees create the powerful competition to Syrians. Social justice is the backbone of promotion of Muslim Brotherhood, who tries to involve the allies to their side, operating an ultimate aim: through the movement to establish justice and equality for all citizens of the country and punishment for those, who neglect modesty and temperance. Surely, it is a very attractive idea, specifically for the disadvantaged and got a mass response from the poor anytime.
Nowadays, Syria is a state with an unusual government that stands out from democratic societies. Instead of having many political parties, the country has only one great party as Baas Party. This party has a tightly controlled dictatorship. The ruling class role in a choice of the most acceptable political course always remains decisive. The practice shows that in Syria, despite it is formulated, but still is not materialized yet in a due measure to create a definite new approach to modern problems of the development. Consequently, in the expert sphere, there are suspicions that the situations in Syria still far defend conforming to the requirements that are necessary in order to go ahead. The ruling class bears the burden of the country government and it went into in a strip difficult, close to critical, tests. He shows a big concern in reforming the country and slowly, not always efficiently, maneuvers in the prolonged searches for only one necessary way among the numerous obstacles arising in an internal and foreign politic situation. It happens in atmosphere of guarded attention from opponents and, sometimes, of skeptical expectation, shown even by the supporters. The experience of the new President shows that he could be approved by the price of inevitable following in line with its tradition, which have been historically settled in Syria of war and peace, diplomacy in the region and a role of Syria in Middle Eastern settlement.
The peace will come to Syria only when the sides of conflict will find forces to make a truce and sit down at the negotiation table and resolve the most critical issues, while West will not disturb them. The proposal as far as it seems to be unbelievable, therefore, every day people are shed blood, but sooner or later politics had to their best for preventing battle. However, all hope that in Syria both parties will put an end to existing war and people will have possibility to return to normal life, do not become refugees and will always feel in safety.
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