Portfolio of Evidence


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Human resource management can be referred to as the coherent and strategic move towards management of the most valuable assets of an organization. These valuable assets are supposed to be taken care of by people working either collectively or individually in the organization with the aim of contributing to the achievement of the objective of the enterprise. The terms “human resource management” and “human resource” have in the long run replaced the term “personnel management” as a reference to the process involved in ensuring that individuals within an organization are managed. In simple terms, HRM refers to offering employment to people, developing their capacities, using, maintaining and paying them for their services in accordance to the work and requirements of the organization.

Generally HRM can be used in describing the formal system devised to manage individuals in an organization. Further, the human resource responsibilities are split into three major parts: staffing, employee compensation, and defining work. The major aim of resource management is to maximize the rate of productivity within an organization. This is only done through optimizing the usefulness of the employees of a given organization. This concept is not likely to change in any essential manner, despite the major changes experienced in the business world. According to the Journal of Business Strategy, the main purpose of human resource will always be to acquire, develop, and retain talent; aligning the workforce with the business; and become excellent contributor to the business. It is important to note that the above mentioned three challenges will never be altered with in any way.

Human resource management (HRM) is a move toward management of people that is based on four essential principles.  These fundamental principles include:

i)  Human resources are the most vital assets to an organization or a firm that if managed properly can lead to success of the enterprise.

ii)  The success is likely to be realized if the personnel policies and modus operandi are closely linked with major contributions to the achievement of the corporate objectives as well as strategic plans.

iii)   The culture of the organization, managerial behavior and organizational climate that emanate from that culture will likely have greater impact on the efforts towards achievement of success. This organizational culture must thus be managed and it may also mean that some of the values within the organization may require to be changed or reinforced and the continuous effort beginning from the top will also be required in order to get them acknowledged and enacted and finally,

iv)  Human Resource Management is generally concerned with integration; this is the process of ensuring that all members within the organization are involved and determined to perform their duties with a common endeavor.     

Features of Human resource management (HRM)

According to Dent, & Radcliff, (2003, pp 160) Features of Human Resource Management include: Secretarial management, Personnel administration, Manpower management, and Industrial management. All the above mentioned traditional expressions are becoming less common for the speculative discipline. Sometimes even member of staff and industrial relations are confusingly listed as synonyms, despite the fact that these more often than not refer to the relationship between management and workers as well as the behavior of workers in companies whether small or big.

The conjectural discipline is based first and foremost on the hypothesis that employees are personalities with different objectives and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic company resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. This field ensures that the worker is viewed positively with the assumption that all are working towards contributing positively to the business as well as being productive. It is also assumed that the major hindrance is lack of knowledge, inadequate training, and failures of procedure.

In various business organizations, human resource management is viewed by practitioners in business fields as a more innovative view of workplace administration as compared to the traditional approach. Its techniques are likely to force the managers of entrepreneur to specifically express their objectives so that an understanding can be guaranteed by the workforce to allow for the provision of resources required to successfully accomplish the defined assignments. Human resource techniques if efficiently put into practice, usually appears to be expressive of the goals and operating practices of the business as a whole.

Dent, & Radcliff, (2003, pp 160) asserts that synonyms such as personnel management are usually used in a more restricted sense with the aim of giving a description of the activities that are necessary in the recruitment of a workforce by giving to its members payroll and benefits as well as administering the work-life needs of the employees. Actually, when we move to the most appropriate definition of personnel management is a series of activities which: firstly, enable workers and the organization employing them to agree on the objectives of and the nature of the relationship of their work, and secondly, ensuring that these objectives are and agreements are reached or met.

Generally, HRM relates to those decisions and actions which concern the management of the employee at all levels in an organization or entrepreneur. They must also relate to the process of implementation of the strategies that are aimed at developing and sustaining the competitive advantage of the organization.

Human Resource Theories

Human resource theories planning stem from the basic of human resource management. So to speak, these types of theories are adjuncts of the general human resource approaches as the main theories of human resource management imply approaches for planning. These theories are discussed below in details:


One of the standard textbooks written by John & Jeffrey (1999, pp 264) entailing information about human resource management led to the reduction of types of management and planning to five theories. Generally, these major theories seek to decipher how HR policies affect business and the manner in which the organizational culture affect the manpower planning issues. For instance, the storey model emphasizes on extra-contractual relations as the basis of planning. It also gives emphasis on the process of hiring worker which it states that hiring new workers and business plans all revolve around building of trust and this trust can only be built around the general managers of a given organization and floor managers as key human resource players. In this study also we come to learn that planning is functionless without employing the required management inputs.   


According to the theory of David Guest, commitment and compliance is stressed as the basic component within an organization. In this case, compliance is all about the basic “contractual” relationships between the employer and the workforce. In relation to planning, this can be viewed as a simple manpower approach that seeks to fulfill only the terms of contract. In this theory even though it is equally important in the management of business organizations, it does not stress on development plans. However, with commitment, it is definite that planning evolves around a determination to build the firm around its employees and their respective talents. Most of the HR planning or management models move around the above mentioned concept of worker development (Kirkpatrick, & Ackroyd, 2003, pp 749).


Beaumont, (1993, pp 34) argues that the theory of human resource planning works hand in hand with the nature of the business plan. In the Harvard model, planning is based around the projected relationship among stakeholders and employees. Stakeholder satisfaction is equally important just like worker development in the Harvard model even though some models of planning does not stress on stakeholders. The most important part in the Harvard model is long-term planning, although there is constant feedback loop between human resource and the stakeholders. In this model, workers satisfaction is usually put aside as it is relative to stakeholder’s income.


The main purpose in the function theory is to identify with the manner in which HR models relate to business planning and vice versa. For instance, in the model of Warwick concerning human resource management, the element of planning is based on balancing of two things; the business model, including things like competence of current employees, business plan, work culture, among others,; and the external environment such legal and market context of the firm. Planning is likely to rationally move forward as a result of the two variables being balanced (Kirkpatrick, & Ackroyd, 2003, pp 747). 


In the Fombrun, Tichy and Devanna model, whereby all forms of planning theories develop around the coherent of the business model. In the say way, there can be not distinction between human resource plans and the general context of the business whether external or internal issues are involved. The major selection-appraisal-development reward theory of Fombrun is really at the foundation of all the other planning theories. More variables have been added to the mix as a result of later development. But in due course, planning theory is little other than what is implied in general human resource management which is based around the development over a given period of time. Harvard’s theory is the one that hold that development is the key to realizing profitability of a company or a business organization. Generally, in more modern times, beginning from 1980-2010, employee development accompanied by trust has been the major center stage and contracts have seized to be seen as major and the beginning of the very fundamental nature of human resource (Kirkpatrick, & Ackroyd, 2003, pp 745).

It is vital to note that until fairly lately, an organization’s department of human resource was mostly considered to lower rungs of the corporate hierarchy, despite tae fact that its mandate was to replenish and nourish the workforce of the firm that is usually cited – justifiably- as the only greatest resource of the organization.

In general, lately the recognition of human resource management to a company’s general health has been considered to have grown dramatically. The recognition of the significance of the human resource management has been extended to even the small businesses, although they do not need all the requirements of human resource that other huge businesses need, but they also are faced with business issues that may affect the general performance and health of the business. According to the comments of Irving Burstiner in “The Small Business Handbook”, hiring of the rightful individuals and offering training services to them in the most appropriate manner can always create a difference between scratching out of the barest of livelihood as well as steady business growth. Problems of personnel generally do not discriminate between small and huge businesses but rather they are found in any business regardless of the size of the business (Kirkpatrick, & Ackroyd, 2003, pp 752).       

Principles of Human Resource Management

It is also important to study and understand the principles of human resource management as this may be useful in both small and huge or big business organizations. Modern business consultants have it that the current human resource management is guided by a number of overriding principles.

a) Definitely, the most important factor is that the paramount principle is just recognition that the most vital assets of an organization are the human resource. This is due to the fact that business success is determined by the effective management of these human resources.

b) Another significant principle as articulated by Michael Armstrong in his book”A Handbook of Human Resource Management” I that the business success achievements of personnel policies as well as the procedures within a business are closely linked with the major contributions to the achievement of the strategic objectives within an organization.

c) The third principle that is also similar in scope is that human resource’s responsibility to guide, secure and develop employees whose talents are desirable are compatible with the operating needs and future objectives as well as the strategic planning. Some of the HRM factors that help in shaping the corporate culture – whether by encouraging integration and corporation across the company instituting quantitative performance measurements, or taking some other related actions are also commonly cited as major tools towards the general success of the business. HRM summarized Armstrong “is a strategic approach that aids in the acquisition, management, development, and motivation of the human resources within the organization. This is aimed at shaping the corporate culture that is appropriate, and then accompanied by the introduction of the programs that reflect and support the core values of the enterprise in order to ensure success and profitability.       

Position and Structure of Human Resource Management

The department of human resource development can be classified in accordance to their responsibilities such: individual, organizational, and career area. To begin with, individual management involves helping employees to identify their strengths and weaknesses, correct their shortcomings in order to contribute to the organization in the best of their ability. Such responsibilities are carried out through various activities including performance view, training and evaluation. Organizational development is usually aimed at fostering a successful system that is likely to maximize human and other resources as part of larger business strategies. In this process we also include the creation and maintenance of a change program that is likely to enable the organization to respond and be competitive in the evolving business world as well as coping with the internal influences. Career development which is the third responsibility entails matching people with the most appropriate job and career path within the business (Beaumont, 1993).

Near the theoretical center of the organization or business is where the human resource functions are ideally positioned but with access to all areas of the business. Given that human resource manager, or the HRM department is charged with the mandate of managing the productivity, innovation and the development of employees at all levels, human resource personnel must therefore have access and support of the key decision making body. Additionally, human resource managers must therefore be in a position to communicate with all sectors of the company.

Generally, human resource management structure differ widely from entrepreneur to entrepreneur, shape, type and size depending on the governing philosophies stipulated by the organization that they serve. Most organizations organize functions of HRM just within the cluster of individuals to be helped by conducting recruiting, administrative, and other duties in the central location. Various worker development groups for every department tend to train worker in specific areas such as: engineering, sales, marketing, sales and executive education. Contrary to this, some of the departments and usually independent and are purely defined by the function. The same training department in most instances serves all the divisions of the organization.

In recent years, nonetheless, researchers have cited a decided trend towards fundamental reassessments of HR structures and positions since it has been proved to be vital. Most of the organizations at times are forced to change the human resource departments according to their perspective on their duty and functions due to a cascade of changing business conditions, changing organizational structures, and changing leadership styles as noted in the “Business Quarterly” according to John Johnston. Long ago, companies structured themselves in accordance with the compartmentalized and centralized basis - head office – marketing, shipping, marketing, and shipping among others.

Currently, they seek to decentralize and ensure that they integrate their operations, developing diversification of teams. In the current business world, it is clear that most of the senior management expect human resource to integrate beyond its tradition, compartmentalized “bunker” approach to a more integrated decentralized management functions. Provided that the change in expectation as indicated by most of the researchers that, “an increasing trend in human resource is to decentralize the human resource functions by making it more functional and accountable in accordance to specific lines of management.” Such an increase is likely to look into HR as most integral component of the business process, similar to its marketing, monetary, and operation counterparts. Nonetheless, HR is likely to retain a more centralized functional relationship in areas where specialized expertise is truly required, including compensation and recruitment responsibilities.          

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