International Relations

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Ans 1: International system is a system which involves states connected with each other in an environment. According to Nonrealistic, there are three types of power distribution in the international system (Goldstein & Pevehouse 10-11).

Ans 2: the term “Anarchy” refers to a state political disorder and of lawlessness because of the absence of government (Goldstein & Pevehouse 41).

“Self Help” is a self-guided improvement either economically, emotionally or intellectually. In the term of legal doctrine, self-help refers to the implementation of rights without resorting to legal writ of higher authority Goldstein & Pevehouse (41).

Security dilemma defines strength and weakness in national security of a state, which is conferential to other nations. This term was introduced by German scholar John H.Herz in his book “Political Realism and Political Idealism” in 1951.

Ans 3: There are four factors, which define a state: a geographic Territory with boundaries recognized internationally. Population which is recognized internationally who lives with in the territory. Third factor, which defines a state is internationally recognized Government (Goldstein & Pevehouse 44).

Assumptions of:

Realism

  • In international relations, State is the most important actor.
  • State is unitary and rational actor.
  • High politics.
  • International relations are essentially conflicting (Goldstein & Pevehouse 37).

Constructivism:

  • Reality.
  • Knowledge.
  • Learning.

Liberalism:

  • Variety of issues can dominate the international agenda.
  • Nature of international relations includes both conflict and co-operation.
  • State is not essentially a unitary and rational actor.
  • For the international relations both, state and non-state actors are essential.
  • Neoliberalism:
    • Societies are motivated through economic considerations.
    • Market competition creates innovation (Goldstein & Pevehouse 66).

Ans 4: Classical Realism and Neorealism:

Classical realism locates the causes of international conflict while Neorealism defines the causes in anarchic international system (Goldstein & Pevehouse 61). Classic realism and Neorealism are the two thoughts of the realist theory based upon the causes of the conflicts. Classic realism relates the Moregenthau. Neorealism presents the politics as the efforts for power, but neorealist considers the anarchy as a cause of the conflict (Rourke 21).

Neorealism and neoliberalism:

Neorealist stress the centrality of relative gains for decision makers depend upon the centrality of the relative gins from Neorealist for international cooperation. On the contrary, Neoliberal stresses on the vitality of the absolute gains (Goldstein & Pevehouse 37).

Ans 5: The offensive neorealism more focuses upon the prediction of the conflicts as compared to defensive neorealism. States require the survival in anarchy at the expense of other states.

Realism and liberalism:

Liberalism emphasizes on the significance of the civil rights as compared to other concerns. Realism primarily concerns the development of national interests on the traditional basis (Goldstein & Pevehouse 63).

Ans 6: There are three levels of analysis in international relations: Individual focuses on a decision made by individual people. State, focuses on the nature of state and the third is International System that checks system that how does it influence the means in which a state acts (Goldstein & Pevehouse 14).

Ans 7: The absolute gains take into consideration the effects of decisions of international actor on the whole society and culture while the relative gain is more emphasized on an individual gain and maximization of power in the society. The realists and liberals differ on the basis of power distribution in the society (Goldstein & Pevehouse 164).

Ans 8: The hegemony is the domination and implied power being exercised by the government on its subordinate states. UK, U.S, and Greek have been considered as the hegemony state. According to Mearsheimer, the hegemony is exercised by these states due to the desire of survival (Goldstein & Pevehouse 4).

Ans 9: The development of the common moral norms and adherence to the institutional, moral framework is the basic idea of Kant for bringing peace in international relations (Goldstein & Pevehouse 64-71).

Ans 10: The reciprocity is the exchange based on mutual coordination and privileges among different states that significantly enhance the cooperation among these states (Goldstein & Pevehouse 4-7).

Ans 11: Democratic peace theory discourages the wars between the states and encourages the peace through democracies (Goldstein & Pevehouse 65).

Ans 12: The rationality provides a logical approach towards the state decisions (Goldstein & Pevehouse 58-59).

Ans 13: The unitary actor assumptions visualize the states as the global regulatory authorities with a certain level of power (Goldstein & Pevehouse 72-73).

Ans 14: Classical western writers are associated with liberalism. American writers are associated with realism (Goldstein & Pevehouse 213).

Ans 15: The reason for joining alliances such as NATO is to provide a secured platform for the country based on the forces and armies. However, the power of balance needs stability in avoiding the wrong use of power by these alliances (Goldstein & Pevehouse 50-63).

Ans 16: Balance of power theory opined that the equal distribution of military resource should be maintained in the states for avoiding the domination of power by a single state. The inability of Europe to maintain a balance in these military powers led to its decline (Goldstein & Pevehouse 43-46).

Ans 17: The power of transition theory explains the comparison between the power in international relations and the cyclical nature of war. When the international relations become unbalanced, then wars seem to emerge (Goldstein & Pevehouse 46-50).

Ans 18: The current international system was originated by the sovereign states (Goldstein & Pevehouse 68-113). Various international systems existed in Egypt, China and Mesopotamia. However, the demise of the Roman Empire is marked as the beginning of the current international system. Weak states overlapped and surviving states patched with other states (Reinalda 6).

Ans 19: Yes tangible and intangible cannot be segregated as they are linked with each other in addressing the resources of human creativity for assurance of the democratic development (Matsuura 10).

Ans 20: The states often face different issues, which tend to overlap each other mostly in the cases of territorial disputes where the land is the subject of dispute among the states (Goldstein & Pevehouse 55).

Ans 21: Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) is the military strategy that envisions the mass destruction through high-yield weapons (Goldstein & Pevehouse 156-161).

Ans 22: The foreign policy is the procedure set for conducting the international relations with different states and countries (Goldstein & Pevehouse 9-14). Factors involved in the formulation of the foreign policy involve the regional, national and international factors. These factors determine the shape of the foreign policy for a state. Information factors include the NGOs, Media, Business community, scholars and academics. Individual level analysis, state level, and system level analysis are the main levels for the analysis of the foreign policy. Individual level analysis focuses upon the individuals who shape the foreign policy for a state.

Ans 23: The IOs play a major role in reducing conflicts among the states at the domestic and interstate level (Goldstein & Pevehouse 14-18). Chiba and Fang (2) argued that IOs also improve the member states’ ability to maintain the peaceful bargains among the states, and also avoiding the militarized disputes.

Ans 24: The Union Nation has been developed to govern the actions and policies of the member countries and they keep on altering for getting aligned with the current global infrastructure (Goldstein & Pevehouse 7).

Ans 25: The UN entails 193 member states. It has Security Council and general assembly that differ in power (Goldstein & Pevehouse 11). The state sovereignty ensures the safety of the human lives. State sovereignty recalls the UN and Security Council for the states authorities for the protection of the population.

Ans 26: The Security Council Reform of UN is based on the vision of encouraging peace among the member states (Goldstein & Pevehouse 223).

Ans 27: The sovereignty and power of the states should be balanced in order to drive the privilege for each state (Goldstein & Pevehouse 41-44).

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