American History: Selected Chapters
The good leadership and the civil activism have facilitated the development of United States. The current paper gives the summary of selected chapters.
There was tremendous growth in technology and the economy after the great recession. There were also significant technological advances such as the development of automobiles manufacturing, radio, and telecommunication systems including the commercial broadcasting. In addition, there was an improvement in the air travels and increased use of synthetic materials in manufacturing.
The steel industries developed into the national organizations and the enterprises adopted new administrative systems to enhance production and increase the subsidiary control. The rise in the trade associations led to the increase of the competition and consequently the improvement in the marketing strategies.
The employers started utilizing the trade unions to give workers more rights, improve safety in the workplace and raise wages to avoid labor unrest. However, the increase in the wages was disproportional to the profits of the employers, and this led to a situation where families had to rely on multiple sources of income.
There was a tremendous rise in the women’s participation in the labor market. However, some minority groups such as the African Americans did not have the access to unions that would fight for their rights.
The industrial growth during the era contributed to the development of the consumer culture and people obtained the discretion of purchasing goods according to their preferences. Furthermore, there was the maturation of the propaganda used in the wartime to improve the advertising of the products. The era also saw the development of radio and video broadcasting leading to the development of the motion pictures.
The government of those times increased its involvement in the business. For instance, the new era presidents assisted the industries and enterprises to operate efficiently and productively by reducing the taxes on corporate incomes. In addition, the government cut the taxes on the individual incomes. The advance led to the stability in the production and marketing of merchandise.
The Great Depression was a period marked by unemployment and crash of the stock markets. The lack of diversification led to the severity of the period. Most people invested in the automobiles. The massive debts owed by the farmers posed a risk of the fall of the banking systems because the banks too had to pay for their investments.
The Depression made the African Americans leave their cotton farms while the few that had menial jobs in the city lost to the whites. The advance resulted in mass migration of the blacks from southern areas to the northern urban centers. The movie attendance decreased but the overall use of radios increased and people had the access to the national news.
The new deal aimed at restoring the public confidence in all sectors. The emergency banking act required the central bank to inspect all the banks and offer assistance to the underperforming ones. In addition, the agricultural enactment aimed at reducing the crop production to enhance demand.
The government relaxed the antitrust laws to ensure the stabilization of the industrial prices and permit collective bargaining to allow laborers participate in trade unions. Controversially, the new deal aimed at reducing the women’s participation in the workforce to create more vacancies for men. Consequently, this led to a situation in which agencies and private institutions offered few jobs to the women of all races.
The new deal increased the governmental regulations, the creation of state relief and the social security. The President increased the federal government powers to allow the local governments occupy the second seat to the government. The progress led to the strengthening of the democratic politics.
The causes of the World War II date back to the negotiations that ended the World War I. However, the negotiations continued to ail the international relations. Although President Roosevelt was one of the internationally recognized presidents, pressure from domestic quotas prevented him from controlling the militarism by the Germans and the Japanese. Consequently, the Japanese continued to expand their territory and began carrying out attacks especially on the American Pearl Harbor naval base.
The numerous defeats by the Germans and the Japanese necessitated the Americans to devise strategies that would allow the America and its allies to carry coordinated attacks on Germany and then embark on defeating Japan that had powerful weaponry and soldiers.
The production of weapons and the recruitment of soldiers necessitated the mobilization of women and other minorities to participate in the war. The progress led to African Americans, women, and gay people acquiring more rights in the armed forces and obtaining the opportunity to better education and decent lives.
The war productions had many consequences. The war restored the prosperity of the country. However, there were dislocations of resources, and this made the government sell wars bonds. The labor shortages increased the demand not only for single women and youths but also for the married women and their children.
The war led to serious infringements of civil rights of the society leading to the eruption of series of violence in the major cities. There were many shocks after the war as Germany had ordered the extermination of Jews and other minorities due to the Nazi propaganda. The advance was contrary to the American values that allowed for the preservation of human life. President Roosevelt, however, did not live to see the fruits of his work because he had died before Germanysurrendered.
Chapter 27 & 28
The rise of the Cold War traces its roots from unresolved issues of the World War II, more precisely the future of China, its boundaries, and relationships between the Soviet Union and its neighbors. The lack of immigrant experience by President Truman compelled him to take a hard stance on the Russian counterpart leading to tension between the two nations.
The postwar period posed many difficulties for the President because of inflation, layoffs, and consistent strikes. The coalition between the Conservatives and the anticommunists further challenged the leader as the groups conspired to subvert the government operations. The advance led to the taking of oaths by all officials and the use of the foreign policy by the President to assert his authority.
The prosperity and the baby boom led to the rise of the suburbs. The capacity to have more children necessitated the need for more housing as well as the production of goods and services. The rapid increase in the economic activities and civil laws implemented by the government made it possible for people to own homes at affordable prices. The works of the planners further enhanced the development of suburbs because they could make designs of houses. The expectations were high for the Americans to adopt religious beliefs, as it was the only way to restore family values.
The culture of the suburbia created an organizational structure where there was a man, a woman, and children. The man used to work in lucrative bureaucratic sphere while the woman resigned to caring for the children. Additionally, the advance allowed women to seek for more education as gender roles became a concern. The new organization of the family allowed for more leisure time as families now had more time to spend in front of their televisions.
The period after the Cold War ushered new leaders who brought practical reforms in the homecountry and abroad. The presidents could use power to achieve optimum results even beyond boundaries. Consequently, President Kennedy used military advisers and special forces to exert control over foreign territories. However, the President faced criticism because of the discovery of nuclear missiles especially in Cuba.
The emergence of suburbs legally segregated the whites from other communities. The segregation made blacks move from the rural South and occupy most of the northern cities inhabited by the whites. The need for activism became apparent when the blacks demanded equality in housing facilities. The works of Martin Luther further pushed for desegregation of the bus and schools systems that allowed blacks and whites to use different services.
The civil rights movement became a tool for liberalism and threatened the split of the Democratic Party that owed its formation to political and religious organizations governed by the blacks. The blacks increased the freedom rides and the sit-ins to propel and promote the agenda of the abolishment of the segregation. The relentless push for reforms saw President Kennedy bow to pressure and issue orders to the federal marshals to protect the civil rights groups. The President had later introduced a civil rights bill that made him pay the ultimate price of his life through assassination.
The passage of the voting freedoms and civil rights enactments into the law by President Lyndon did not soften the black activist for the inclusion of more blacks into the critical sectors of the economy. The pressure led to the introduction of the Great Society program that aimed at assisting with education, providing health benefits to the elderly, increasing the affordability of housing structures and conservation of the environment. The Vietnam War and the political corruption, however, proved futile for the Great Society program that led to high prices for goods and political infighting within the governmental sectors.
The Supreme Court exerted its authority through a series of landmark decisions that protected the civil liberties and rights. The decisions gave the criminals due process and prohibited prayers at schools. Consequently, many youths downplayed politics and engaged in sex, music and drugs as a solace for the segregation.
President Johnson launched full retaliatory attacks on the North Vietnam after an incident in the Gulf of Tonkin. The North Vietnam leader, however, downplayed any talks with the American government leading to the bombing of selected targets within the country. According to the condition for negotiations, the North Vietnam leader demanded a halt in bombing and withdrawal of all forces. The conditions prompted the US President to send more ground troops to the country until they attained a significant role in the fighting.
The Vietnam War had social consequences as it allowed the use of young soldiers, the needy and the less trained. Besides, the weapons that the soldiers used had adverse effects because they destroyed the same people they were to assist. The bombs and the defoliants were not practical for use in an area where the Vietnam soldiers had considerable control.
The Vietnam War drove a different path after President Johnson refusal to take part in the elections. Moreover, the gunning down of Martin Luther and subsequent riots in the central cities brought the country to a standstill. The general elections saw Nixon take the win.
Although Nixon privately admitted the need for the withdrawal of the American troops from Vietnam, he publicly ordered more bombardment of the country. The need for withdrawal would reduce the American casualties. It, however, would depict the declining military power of the America. The Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal led to Nixon’s resignation. His departure resulted in the crippling of the liberal vision of the powerful government. The energy crisis as a result of Middle East boycott forced the US to cease its involvement in the Vietnam internal conflicts.
There was the need to address the widespread distrust of the government after the Watergate and the Vietnam War scandals. The conservative politicians aligned themselves with the growing evangelical movements to portray the governmental actions as conflicting with the religious values. The traditionalists resorted to the use of media to pass their message across. However, the media, according to the traditionalists, was filled with the sex and the violence.
Jimmy Carter had the responsibility of bringing simplicity and integrity and deal with inflation and energy crisis that caused an increase in prices for the essential goods. However, the leader did not allow the Congress to act. The Congress accused him of focusing on the minor details instead of the broader policies. Although he made numerous treaties on foreign policies, his tenure was short-lived.
Reagan, a conservative, faced numerous problems that had no simple answers. The buildup of all weapons by defense agency faced criticism as opponents criticized the move as unwanted and contributed to wastage of public resources. Besides, Reagan faced criticism for pursuing secret foreign policies that raised the question of integrity and morality. The policies violated the Constitution. Reagan, however, could not deliver support on the court's ruling on the school prayers, the issue of abortion and the use of drugs. The President created high paying jobs for the youth. His career remained full-bodied until the end of his tenure in the office.
The dawning of the 21st century led America to record large numbers of migrants mainly from Asia, Mexico, and Cuba. The United States has since diversified its economic, financial and demographic situation to allow the interactions between the nation and other foreign states. The immigrants have contributed to the growth of the economy apart from the introduction of new cultural aspects such as religion.
The Clinton presidency revived the dwindling economy and brought sanity in wealth, health delivery services and reduction of crime in some cities. In addition, his government participated in seeking solutions to foreign crises in the Europe, Asia, and Africa. The wise move of the President to use his power to solve the issues earned him respect across the regional divide.
Clinton's government stimulated the economy leading to reduced inflation and surplus in the federal budgets. The surplus allowed the government to involve other countries and offer monetary aid to deal with the spread of diseases and drought among other critical problems. Most of the Americans had the access to international telecommunication facilities such as computers and mobile phones that allowed direct contact with the wider globe. The adoption of technology created millions of jobs for both the locals and the foreigners.
The nation has faced many challenges in dealing with multiculturalism. The vice has led to numerous violent riots as different ethnic groups endeavored to accommodate the diversity of other cultures. The trouble has been prevalent in most educational institutions and workplaces. Its strategic position and might has led to numerous terrorist attacks that continue to thrive in the Arab countries. However, the nation continues to assert its power over the terrorism by identifying and destroying the terrorists' bases and killing their leaders.
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